paolo broggini paolo broggini paolo broggini Bladder infections are the more common request for ambulatory consulence in the woman. There are two main age groups believed to be particularly affected by this disease: from 20 to 30 years old and the menopausal period. When the symptoms from a single, occasional event appear more often, maybe associated with blood when urinating, then cystitis is chronic. Often the conventional antibiotic treatments don’t solve the problem and is then necessary to proceed with surgery. Women’s bladder has an internal epithelium called Urothelium that is in direct contact with urine: when this membrane get attacked by germs the condition can get chronic. Factors that can predispose to women’s cystitis are stipsi, low liquid assumption, sexual activity and menopause. To solve the problems the standard method recommend the urologic visit combined with exams from lab culture: some women appear not to empty their bladder fully and this is often the main problem. Sometimes the woman leaks urine and this incontinence gets worst during cystitis phases. In the case of augmented urinating frequency together with blood is essential to carry on further examinations to exclude the eventuality of bladder’s tumor (that occurs more often for smokers).